Brief Summary of Prescribing Information for XARELTO ® (rivaroxaban) XARELTO ® (rivaroxaban) tablets, for oral use See package insert for full Prescribing Information WARNING: (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF XARELTO INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS, (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA A. Premature discontinuation of XARELTO increases the risk of thrombotic events Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO, increases the risk of thrombotic events. If anticoagulation with XARELTO is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.7) in full Prescribing Information, Warnings and Precautions, and Clinical Studies (14.1) in full Prescribing Information] . B. Spinal/epidural hematoma Epidural or spinal hematomas have occurred in patients treated with XARELTO who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include: • use of indwelling epidural catheters • concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants • a history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures • a history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery • optimal timing between the administration of XARELTO and neuraxial procedures is not known [see Warnings and Precautions and Adverse Reactions]. Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary [see Warnings and Precautions] . Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions] . INDICATIONS AND USAGE Reduction of Risk of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: XARELTO is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. There are limited data on the relative effectiveness of XARELTO and warfarin in reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism when warfarin therapy is well-controlled [see Clinical Studies (14.1) in full Prescribing Information]. Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis: XARELTO is indicated for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism: XARELTO is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE). Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and of Pulmonary Embolism: XARELTO is indicated for the reduction in the risk of recurrence of deep vein thrombosis and of pulmonary embolism following initial 6 months treatment for DVT and/or PE. Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery: XARELTO is indicated for the prophylaxis of DVT, which may lead to PE in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement surgery. CONTRAINDICATIONS XARELTO is contraindicated in patients with: • active pathological bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions] • severe hypersensitivity reaction to XARELTO (e.g., anaphylactic reactions) [see Adverse Reactions] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Increased Risk of Thrombotic Events after Premature Discontinuation: Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including XARELTO, in the absence of adequate alternative anticoagulation increases the risk of thrombotic events. An increased rate of stroke was observed during the transition from XARELTO to warfarin in clinical trials in atrial fibrillation patients. If XARELTO is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.7) and Clinical Studies (14.1) in full Prescribing Information] . Risk of Bleeding: XARELTO increases the risk of bleeding and can cause serious or fatal bleeding. In deciding whether to prescribe XARELTO to patients at increased risk of bleeding, the risk of thrombotic events should be weighed against the risk of bleeding. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss and consider the need for blood replacement. Discontinue XARELTO in patients with active pathological hemorrhage. The terminal elimination half-life of rivaroxaban is 5 to 9 hours in healthy subjects aged 20 to 45 years. Concomitant use of other drugs that impair hemostasis increases the risk of bleeding. These include aspirin, P2Y 12 platelet inhibitors, other antithrombotic agents, fibrinolytic therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [see Drug Interactions] , selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Concomitant use of drugs that are known combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors increases rivaroxaban exposure and may increase bleeding risk [see Drug Interactions] . Reversal of Anticoagulant Effect: A specific antidote for rivaroxaban is not available. Because of high plasma protein binding, rivaroxaban is not expected to be dialyzable [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) in full Prescribing Information] . Protamine sulfate and vitamin K are not expected to affect the anticoagulant activity of rivaroxaban. Partial reversal of prothrombin time prolongation has been seen after administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) in healthy volunteers. The use of other procoagulant reversal agents like activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC) or recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has not been evaluated. Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia or Puncture: When neuraxial anesthesia (spinal/epidural anesthesia) or spinal puncture is employed, patients treated with anticoagulant agents for prevention of thromboembolic complications are at risk of developing an epidural or spinal hematoma which can result in long-term or permanent paralysis [see Boxed Warning] . To reduce the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concurrent use of rivaroxaban and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture, consider the pharmacokinetic profile of rivaroxaban [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) in full Prescribing Information] . Placement or removal of an epidural catheter or lumbar puncture is best performed when the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban is low; however, the exact timing to reach a sufficiently low anticoagulant effect in each patient is not known. XARELTO ® (rivaroxaban) tablets An indwelling epidural or intrathecal catheter should not be removed before at least 2 half-lives have elapsed (i.e., 18 hours in young patients aged 20 to 45 years and 26 hours in elderly patients aged 60 to 76 years), after the last administration of XARELTO [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) in full Prescribing Information] . The next XARELTO dose should not be administered earlier than 6 hours after the removal of the catheter. If traumatic puncture occurs, delay the administration of XARELTO for 24 hours. Should the physician decide to administer anticoagulation in the context of epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or lumbar puncture, monitor frequently to detect any signs or symptoms of neurological impairment, such as midline back pain, sensory and motor deficits (numbness, tingling, or weakness in lower limbs), bowel and/or bladder dysfunction. Instruct patients to immediately report if they experience any of the above signs or symptoms. If signs or symptoms of spinal hematoma are suspected, initiate urgent diagnosis and treatment including consideration for spinal cord decompression even though such treatment may not prevent or reverse neurological sequelae. Use in Patients with Renal Impairment: Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: Periodically assess renal function as clinically indicated (i.e., more frequently in situations in which renal function may decline) and adjust therapy accordingly [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) in full Prescribing Information] . Consider dose adjustment or discontinuation of XARELTO in patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO [see Use in Specific Populations] . Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), Pulmonary Embolism (PE), and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and of PE: Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <30 mL/min due to an expected increase in rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects in this patient population [see Use in Specific Populations] . Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery: Avoid the use of XARELTO in patients with CrCl <30 mL/min due to an expected increase in rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects in this patient population. Observe closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of blood loss in patients with CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min. Patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO should discontinue the treatment [see Use in Specific Populations]. Use in Patients with Hepatic Impairment: No clinical data are available for patients with severe hepatic impairment. Avoid use of XARELTO in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) and severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment or with any hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy since drug exposure and bleeding risk may be increased [see Use in Specific Populations] . Use with P-gp and Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors or Inducers: Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO with known combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors [see Drug Interactions] . Avoid concomitant use of XARELTO with drugs that are known combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducers [see Drug Interactions] . Risk of Pregnancy-Related Hemorrhage: In pregnant women, XARELTO should be used only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the mother and fetus. XARELTO dosing in pregnancy has not been studied. The anticoagulant effect of XARELTO cannot be monitored with standard laboratory testing nor readily reversed. Promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms suggesting blood loss (e.g., a drop in hemoglobin and/ or hematocrit, hypotension, or fetal distress). Patients with Prosthetic Heart Valves: The safety and efficacy of XARELTO have not been studied in patients with prosthetic heart valves. Therefore, use of XARELTO is not recommended in these patients. Acute PE in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients or Patients Who Require Thrombolysis or Pulmonary Embolectomy: Initiation of XARELTO is not recommended acutely as an alternative to unfractionated heparin in patients with pulmonary embolism who present with hemodynamic instability or who may receive thrombolysis or pulmonary embolectomy. ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are also discussed in other sections of the labeling: • Increased risk of stroke after discontinuation in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions] • Bleeding risk [see Warnings and Precautions] • Spinal/epidural hematoma [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions] Clinical Trials Experience: Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. During clinical development for the approved indications, 16326 patients were exposed to XARELTO. These included 7111 patients who received XARELTO 15 mg or 20 mg orally once daily for a mean of 19 months (5558 for 12 months and 2512 for 24 months) to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (ROCKET AF); 4728 patients who received either XARELTO 15 mg orally twice daily for three weeks followed by 20 mg orally once daily (EINSTEIN DVT, EINSTEIN PE) or 20 mg orally once daily (EINSTEIN Extension) to treat DVT, PE, and to reduce the risk of recurrence of DVT and of PE; and 4487 patients who received XARELTO 10 mg orally once daily for prophylaxis of DVT following hip or knee replacement surgery (RECORD 1-3). Hemorrhage: The most common adverse reactions with XARELTO were bleeding complications [see Warnings and Precautions] . Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: In the ROCKET AF trial, the most frequent adverse reactions associated with permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with incidence rates of 4.3% for XARELTO vs. 3.1% for warfarin. The incidence of discontinuations for non-bleeding adverse events was similar in both treatment groups. Table 1 shows the number of patients experiencing various types of bleeding events in the ROCKET AF trial. Table 1: Bleeding Events in ROCKET AF*-On Treatment Plus 2 Days Parameter XARELTO N=7111 n (%/year) 395 (3.6) 55 (0.5) 36 (0.3) 19 (0.2) 221 (2.0) 27 (0.2) 24 (0.2) 3 (0.0) Warfarin N=7125 n (%/year) 386 (3.5) 84 (0.7) 58 (0.5) 26 (0.2) 140 (1.2) 55 (0.5) 42 (0.4) 13 (0.1) XARELTO vs. Warfarin HR (95% CI) 1.04 (0.90, 1.20) 0.67 (0.47, 0.93) 0.63 (0.42, 0.96) 0.74 (0.41, 1.34) 1.61 (1.30, 1.99) 0.50 (0.31, 0.79) 0.58 (0.35, 0.96) 0.23 (0.07, 0.82) XARELTO ® (rivaroxaban) tablets Abbreviations: HR = Hazard Ratio, CI = Confidence interval, CRNM = Clinically Relevant Non-Major. * Major bleeding events within each subcategory were counted once per patient, but patients may have contributed events to multiple subcategories. These events occurred during treatment or within 2 days of stopping treatment. † Defined as clinically overt bleeding associated with a decrease in hemoglobin of ≥2 g/dL, a transfusion of ≥2 units of packed red blood cells or whole blood, bleeding at a critical site, or with a fatal outcome. ‡ Intracranial bleeding events included intraparenchymal, intraventricular, subdural, subarachnoid and/or epidural hematoma. § Hemorrhagic stroke in this table specifically refers to non-traumatic intraparenchymal and/or intraventricular hematoma in patients on treatment plus 2 days. ¶ Gastrointestinal bleeding events included upper GI, lower GI, and rectal bleeding. # Fatal bleeding is adjudicated death with the primary cause of death from bleeding. Figure 1 shows the risk of major bleeding events across major subgroups. Figure 1: Risk of Major Bleeding Events by Baseline Characteristics in ROCKET AF – On Treatment Plus 2 Days Note: The figure above presents effects in various subgroups all of which are baseline characteristics and all of which were pre-specified (diabetic status was not pre-specified in the subgroup, but was a criterion for the CHADS2 score). The 95% confidence limits that are shown do not take into account how many comparisons were made, nor do they reflect the effect of a particular factor after adjustment for all other factors. Apparent homogeneity or heterogeneity among groups should not be over-interpreted. Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), Pulmonary Embolism (PE), and to Reduce the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and of PE: EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE Studies: In the pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE clinical studies, the most frequent adverse reactions leading to permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with XARELTO vs. enoxaparin/Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) incidence rates of 1.7% vs. 1.5%, respectively. The mean duration of treatment was 208 days for XARELTO-treated patients and 204 days for enoxaparin/VKA-treated patients. Table 2 shows the number of patients experiencing major bleeding events in the pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies. Table 2: Bleeding Events* in the Pooled Analysis of EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE Studies Parameter XARELTO † N=4130 n (%) 40 (1.0) 3 (<0.1) 2 (<0.1) 10 (0.2) 3 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1) 3 (<0.1) 0 27 (0.7) 28 (0.7) 18 (0.4) 357 (8.6) Enoxaparin/ VKA † N=4116 n (%) 72 (1.7) 8 (0.2) 4 (<0.1) 29 (0.7) 10 (0.2) 8 (0.2) 2 (<0.1) 4 (<0.1) 37 (0.9) 42 (1.0) 25 (0.6) 357 (8.7) Major bleeding event Fatal bleeding Intracranial Non-fatal critical organ bleeding Intracranial ‡ Retroperitoneal ‡ Intraocular ‡ Intra-articular ‡ Non-fatal non-critical organ bleeding § Decrease in Hb ≥ 2 g/dL Transfusion of ≥2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells Clinically relevant non-major bleeding Major Bleeding † Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH) ‡ Hemorrhagic Stroke § Other ICH Gastrointestinal (GI) ¶ Fatal Bleeding # ICH Non-intracranial Any bleeding 1169 (28.3) 1153 (28.0) * Bleeding event occurred after randomization and up to 2 days after the last dose of study drug. Although a patient may have had 2 or more events, the patient is counted only once in a category. † Treatment schedule in EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies: XARELTO 15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks followed by 20 mg once daily; enoxaparin/VKA [enoxaparin: 1 mg/kg twice daily, VKA: individually titrated doses to achieve a target INR of 2.5 (range: 2.0-3.0)] ‡ Treatment-emergent major bleeding events with at least >2 subjects in any pooled treatment group § Major bleeding which is not fatal or in a critical organ, but resulting in a decrease in Hb ≥ 2 g/dL and/or transfusion of ≥ 2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells EINSTEIN Extension Study: In the EINSTEIN Extension clinical study, the most frequent adverse reactions associated with permanent drug discontinuation were bleeding events, with incidence rates of 1.8% for XARELTO vs. 0.2% for placebo treatment groups. The mean duration of treatment was 190 days for both XARELTO and placebo treatment groups. Table 3 shows the number of patients experiencing bleeding events in the EINSTEIN Extension study.